The topography of Tamil Nadu is delightfully varied
and diverse. Of the 1,30,058 sq km land area, 17.6 is covered with forest area. These spreads over the plain and on mountain
slopes. Dry lands are bestowed with dry-decidious forests, thorn forests, scrubs
and mangroves. The Western Ghats and a few cooler regions are endowed with moist
decidious, wet evergreen forests, sholas and grasslands.
There are 5 National Parks and 17 Wildlife Sactuaries in
Tamil Nadu. The famous ones are :
Wildlife Sanctuary :
Spread over 958 sq kms, this sanctuary can be reached
though Topslip in Anamalai Hills on the Western Ghats. An ecological Paradise,
this sanctuary encompasses a National Park with an area of 108 sq kms. About 800
species out of 2000 South Indian Flora are distributed here.
This sanctuary nurtures Arboreal animals like
lion tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, Comon Langur, nilgiris langur, Malabar
Giant squirrel and Grizzled Giant Squirrel. The ground animals listed are:
Tiger, Panther, Elephant, Gaur, Pangolin, Sambar, Spotted Deer, Barking Deer,
Mouse Deer, Wild boar, Dhole, Sloth Bear, Porcupine, Nilgiris TAhr, Civet Cat
and Taddy Cat. The Avifauna includes Racket Tailed Drongo, Black Headed Oriole,
Paradise Fly-catche, WhistlingThrush, Emerald Dove, Green pigeon, Tickell's
Flower Pecker, Rufus Wood Pecker, Rose Ringed Parakeet, Black Eagle, Great
Indian, Malabar pied HornBill, Fiary Blue Bird and green billed malkhoha etc.
Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary
Located in Nilgiri Hills, the offshoot of the Western ghats
meet the eastern ghats. This 321 sq km wide sanctuary encompasses a National
Park measuring an area of 103 sq kms.
This sanctuary is located where the Nilagiri Hills,
the offshoot of the Wetern ghats meet the eastern ghats. The Mudumalai Wildlife
Sanctuary has varied mixture of flat land, undulating parkland, open grassland,
swamp, valleys and nullas. The Mayyar river in this region forms a series of
spectacular cascades on its way 65 kms away from Udhagamandalam - Mysore
highway, this sanctuary could be reached from Mysore as well.
This 321 sq kms wide sanctuary encompasses a National Park
measuring are of 103 sq kms. The vegetation is varied. The hilly terrain of the
Western Ghats, clothed in dense mixed and moist deciduous forests, make
Mudumalai (the ancient hills) a most attractive wildlife reserve. The
Mysore-Ooty highway runs through the Park, following the course of the Moyar
River, which separates Mudumalai from Bandipur.
The fauna includes Elephant, Gaur, Bonnet, Macaque, Common
langur, Tigers and Leopards, Chital, Dhole Panther, Sloth Bear, Python, Barking
deer, Four-Hourned- Antelope, Otter, Crocodiles (mugger), giant flying squirrel,
Sambhar, Hyena, Wild Dog, Wild Boar, Mouse Deer, Spotted Deer, Jackal, Hare,
Porcupine and Mangoose.
The Birds listed in this sanctuary are peacock-our national
bird, grey jungle fowl, Malabar whistling thrush, large racket-tailed dronge,
the shama, the magpie-robin, spotted babbler, small green barbet, greemn
pigeons, little brown dove, malabar grey hornbill, bulbuls, mynahs etc. Among
birds of prey, eagles, hawks, buzzards, harriers, falcons and king vulture are
predominant, berdies some migratory water birds.
Located on the high altitudes of the
Nilgiris, 40 kms from Udhagamandalam. It contains a viable
population of Nigiri Tahr (Hamitrgus-hilocrius), Sambar, Nilgiri Marten, Barking
Located on the high altitudes of the
Nilgiris, comprising rolling downs
interspersed with temperate sholas, this park is also a part of Nilgiri
Bio-sphere reserve and situated 40 km from Udhagamandalam. It contains a
viable population on Nilgiri Thar (Hamitragus-hilocrius), Sambhar, Barking
deer, Nilgiri marten and otter, Jungle cat, Jackal etc.
Avifauna consists of hill birds viz laughing and whistling
thrushes, woodcick, wild pigeaon and black eagle. Butter-flies with Himalayan
affinity like the Blu Admiral, Indian Red Admiral, Indian Fritillary, Indian
Cabbage white, Hedge blues and rainbow trouts can be also be seen.Trekking
routes exist from Parsan valley, portimund, pykara etc. Trout fishing is
recommended in the rivers and lakes of Mukurthi. Permission from Asst. Director,
Fisheries Department, Udhagai, must be obtained in advance for fishing.
Situated in an area of 223 sq kms in the Tirunelveli
District. Wildlife seen in the sanctuary inludes Lion Tailed Macaque, Nilgiri
Langur, Bonnet Macaque and common Langur, Nilgiri Tahr
Kalakkadu Wild Life Sanctuary is situated in area of 223 sq kms in the Tirunelveli
District, including the foothills of Western Ghats and the adjoining area.
The flora ranges from forests of tropical wet ever-green to Tropical dry
decidious and thorn forest at down hills.
Lion tailed Macaque, Nilgiri
Langur, Bonnet Macaque and
Common Langur, Nilgiri Tahr, sambar, Sloth Bear, gaur, Elephant, Tiger, Flying
Squirrel, Panther, Wild Dog, Pangoline are some of the wild life seen in the
sanctuary. Besides, a wide range of birds and reptiles could be seen. Trekking
can be done with prior permission from the Forest (Wildlife) Department.
Point Calimere Wild
Sprawling on 17.26 sq
km surrounded by sea and shore, comprising forests of tidal swamps, this
sanctuary is situated in Nagapattinam district. It is bestowed with populations
of varied wild life such as Chittal, Wild Boar
Sprawling on 17.26 sq km surrounded by sea and shore,
comprising forests of tidal swamps, dry evergreen forests of mangroves, this
sanctuary is situated in the Nagapattinam district. It is bestowed with
population of varied wild life such as Chital, Wild boar, Bonnet macaque, Black
Buck, Flamingoes, Teals, Gulls, Terns, Plavers and Stilts. Special attractions
are close encounters with Dolphins and Turtles which often come quite close to
Guindy National Park :
Situated in Chennai. Compositions of animals Black Buck,
Chital, Jackal, Pangolin and a variety of Avi fauna.
Guindy National Park is one of the prime visiting
spots for those who come to Chennai during vacation period. It attracts visitors
over three lakhs during a season. A recommended picnic spot for the entire
family to spend a day amidst nature and return home joyfully in the evening.
This park boasts of over 24 varieties of trees, for
example, Amona Squamosa, Atlanta Monoplylla, Feronia Limonia, Azadirachta India,
etc. to mention a few. Also more than 14 varieties of shrubs, over 14 types of
mammals like elephant, antilope, spotted dear, jungle cat, toddy cat, Indian
civet, etc. The park also accounts for over 37 varieties of birds, like black
chested, black winged kite, honey buzzard, pariah kite, and so on. There are
also many kinds of amphibians and snakes to add to the variety that is already
Karikili Bird Sanctuaries
Situated in the Kanchipuram district. In all 115 species of
birds have been recorded in this sanctuary.